# Visualization

### learning_curves¶

ludwig.visualize.learning_curves( train_stats_per_model, output_feature_name, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show how model measures change over training and validation data epochs.

For each model and for each output feature and measure of the model, it produces a line plot showing how that measure changed over the course of the epochs of training on the training and validation sets. :param train_stats_per_model: List containing train statistics per model :param output_feature_name: Name of the output feature that is predicted and for which is provided ground truth :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### compare_performance¶

ludwig.visualize.compare_performance( test_stats_per_model, output_feature_name, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Produces model comparision barplot visualization for each overall metric

For each model (in the aligned lists of test_statistics and model_names) it produces bars in a bar plot, one for each overall metric available in the test_statistics file for the specified output_feature_name. :param test_stats_per_model: List containing train statistics per model :param output_feature_name: Name of the output feature that is predicted and for which is provided ground truth :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### compare_classifiers_performance_from_prob¶

ludwig.visualize.compare_classifiers_performance_from_prob( probabilities_per_model, ground_truth, top_n_classes, labels_limit, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Produces model comparision barplot visualization from probabilities.

For each model it produces bars in a bar plot, one for each overall metric computed on the fly from the probabilities of predictions for the specified output_feature_name. :param probabilities_per_model: List of model probabilities :param ground_truth: NumPy Array containing ground truth data :param top_n_classes: List containing the number of classes to plot :param labels_limit: Maximum numbers of labels. If labels in dataset are higher than this number, "rare" label :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### compare_classifiers_performance_from_pred¶

ludwig.visualize.compare_classifiers_performance_from_pred( predictions_per_model, ground_truth, metadata, output_feature_name, labels_limit, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Produces model comparision barplot visualization from predictions.

For each model it produces bars in a bar plot, one for each overall metric computed on the fly from the predictions for the specified output_feature_name. :param predictions_per_model: List containing the model predictions for the specified output_feature_name :param ground_truth: NumPy Array containing ground truth data :param metadata: Model's input metadata :param output_feature_name: output_feature_name containing ground truth :param labels_limit: Maximum numbers of labels. If labels in dataset are higher than this number, "rare" label :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### compare_classifiers_performance_subset¶

ludwig.visualize.compare_classifiers_performance_subset( probabilities_per_model, ground_truth, top_n_classes, labels_limit, subset, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Produces model comparision barplot visualization from train subset.

For each model it produces bars in a bar plot, one for each overall metric computed on the fly from the probabilities predictions for the specified output_feature_name, considering only a subset of the full training set. The way the subset is obtained is using the top_n_classes and subset parameters. :param probabilities_per_model: List of model probabilities :param ground_truth: NumPy Array containing ground truth data :param top_n_classes: List containing the number of classes to plot :param labels_limit: Maximum numbers of labels. :param subset: Type of the subset filtering :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### compare_classifiers_performance_changing_k¶

ludwig.visualize.compare_classifiers_performance_changing_k( probabilities_per_model, ground_truth, top_k, labels_limit, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Produce lineplot that show Hits@K measure while k goes from 1 to top_k.

For each model it produces a line plot that shows the Hits@K measure (that counts a prediction as correct if the model produces it among the first k) while changing k from 1 to top_k for the specified output_feature_name. :param probabilities_per_model: List of model probabilities :param ground_truth: NumPy Array containing ground truth data :param top_k: Number of elements in the ranklist to consider :param labels_limit: Maximum numbers of labels. If labels in dataset are higher than this number, "rare" label :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### compare_classifiers_multiclass_multimetric¶

ludwig.visualize.compare_classifiers_multiclass_multimetric( test_stats_per_model, metadata, output_feature_name, top_n_classes, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show the precision, recall and F1 of the model for the specified output_feature_name.

For each model it produces four plots that show the precision, recall and F1 of the model on several classes for the specified output_feature_name. :param test_stats_per_model: List containing train statistics per model :param metadata: Model's input metadata :param output_feature_name: Name of the output feature that is predicted and for which is provided ground truth :param top_n_classes: List containing the number of classes to plot :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None: :return:

### compare_classifiers_predictions¶

ludwig.visualize.compare_classifiers_predictions( predictions_per_model, ground_truth, labels_limit, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show two models comparision of their output_feature_name predictions.

:param predictions_per_model: List containing the model predictions :param ground_truth: NumPy Array containing ground truth data :param labels_limit: Maximum numbers of labels. If labels in dataset are higher than this number, "rare" label :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### confidence_thresholding_2thresholds_2d¶

ludwig.visualize.confidence_thresholding_2thresholds_2d( probabilities_per_model, ground_truths, threshold_output_feature_names, labels_limit, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show confidence trethreshold data vs accuracy for two output_feature_name thresholds

The first plot shows several semi transparent lines. They summarize the 3d surfaces displayed by confidence_thresholding_2thresholds_3d that have thresholds on the confidence of the predictions of the two threshold_output_feature_names as x and y axes and either the data coverage percentage or the accuracy as z axis. Each line represents a slice of the data coverage surface projected onto the accuracy surface. :param probabilities_per_model: List of model probabilities :param ground_truths: List of NumPy Arrays containing ground truth data :param threshold_output_feature_names: List of output_feature_names for 2d threshold :param labels_limit: Maximum numbers of labels. If labels in dataset are higher than this number, "rare" label :param model_names: Name of the model to use as label. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### confidence_thresholding_2thresholds_3d¶

ludwig.visualize.confidence_thresholding_2thresholds_3d( probabilities_per_model, ground_truths, threshold_output_feature_names, labels_limit, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show 3d confidence trethreshold data vs accuracy for two output_feature_name thresholds

The plot shows the 3d surfaces displayed by confidence_thresholding_2thresholds_3d that have thresholds on the confidence of the predictions of the two threshold_output_feature_names as x and y axes and either the data coverage percentage or the accuracy as z axis. :param probabilities_per_model: List of model probabilities :param ground_truths: List of NumPy Arrays containing ground truth data :param threshold_output_feature_names: List of output_feature_names for 2d threshold :param labels_limit: Maximum numbers of labels. If labels in dataset are higher than this number, "rare" label :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### confidence_thresholding¶

ludwig.visualize.confidence_thresholding( probabilities_per_model, ground_truth, labels_limit, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show models accuracy and data coverage while increasing treshold

For each model it produces a pair of lines indicating the accuracy of the model and the data coverage while increasing a threshold (x axis) on the probabilities of predictions for the specified output_feature_name. :param probabilities_per_model: List of model probabilities :param ground_truth: NumPy Array containing ground truth data :param labels_limit: Maximum numbers of labels. If labels in dataset are higher than this number, "rare" label :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### confidence_thresholding_data_vs_acc¶

ludwig.visualize.confidence_thresholding_data_vs_acc( probabilities_per_model, ground_truth, labels_limit, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show models comparision of confidence treshold data vs accuracy.

For each model it produces a line indicating the accuracy of the model and the data coverage while increasing a threshold on the probabilities of predictions for the specified output_feature_name. The difference with confidence_thresholding is that it uses two axes instead of three, not visualizing the threshold and having coverage as x axis instead of the threshold. :param probabilities_per_model: List of model probabilities :param ground_truth: NumPy Array containing ground truth data :param labels_limit: Maximum numbers of labels. If labels in dataset are higher than this number, "rare" label :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### confidence_thresholding_data_vs_acc_subset¶

ludwig.visualize.confidence_thresholding_data_vs_acc_subset( probabilities_per_model, ground_truth, top_n_classes, labels_limit, subset, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show models comparision of confidence treshold data vs accuracy on a subset of data.

For each model it produces a line indicating the accuracy of the model and the data coverage while increasing a threshold on the probabilities of predictions for the specified output_feature_name, considering only a subset of the full training set. The way the subset is obtained is using the top_n_classes and subset parameters. The difference with confidence_thresholding is that it uses two axes instead of three, not visualizing the threshold and having coverage as x axis instead of the threshold.

If the values of subset is ground_truth, then only datapoints where the ground truth class is within the top n most frequent ones will be considered as test set, and the percentage of datapoints that have been kept from the original set will be displayed. If the values of subset is predictions, then only datapoints where the the model predicts a class that is within the top n most frequent ones will be considered as test set, and the percentage of datapoints that have been kept from the original set will be displayed for each model. :param probabilities_per_model: List of model probabilities :param ground_truth: NumPy Array containing ground truth data :param top_n_classes: List containing the number of classes to plot :param labels_limit: Maximum numbers of labels. :param subset: Type of the subset filtering :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### binary_threshold_vs_metric¶

ludwig.visualize.binary_threshold_vs_metric( probabilities_per_model, ground_truth, metrics, positive_label=1, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show confidence of the model against metric for the specified output_feature_name.

For each metric specified in metrics (options are f1, precision, recall, accuracy), this visualization produces a line chart plotting a threshold on the confidence of the model against the metric for the specified output_feature_name. If output_feature_name is a category feature, positive_label indicates which is the class to be considered positive class and all the others will be considered negative. It needs to be an integer, to figure out the association between classes and integers check the ground_truth_metadata JSON file. :param probabilities_per_model: List of model probabilities :param ground_truth: List of NumPy Arrays containing ground truth data :param metrics: metrics to dispay (f1, precision, recall, accuracy) :param positive_label: Label of the positive class :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### roc_curves¶

ludwig.visualize.roc_curves( probabilities_per_model, ground_truth, positive_label=1, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show the roc curves for the specified models output output_feature_name.

This visualization produces a line chart plotting the roc curves for the specified output_feature_name. If output_feature_name is a category feature, positive_label indicates which is the class to be considered positive class and all the others will be considered negative. It needs to be an integer, to figure out the association between classes and integers check the ground_truth_metadata JSON file. :param probabilities_per_model: List of model probabilities :param ground_truth: List of NumPy Arrays containing ground truth data :param positive_label: Label of the positive class :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### roc_curves_from_test_statistics¶

ludwig.visualize.roc_curves_from_test_statistics( test_stats_per_model, output_feature_name, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show the roc curves for the specified models output binary output_feature_name.

This visualization uses the output_feature_name, test_statistics and model_names parameters. output_feature_name needs to be binary feature. This visualization produces a line chart plotting the roc curves for the specified output_feature_name. :param test_stats_per_model: List containing train statistics per model :param output_feature_name: Name of the output feature that is predicted and for which is provided ground truth :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### calibration_1_vs_all¶

ludwig.visualize.calibration_1_vs_all( probabilities_per_model, ground_truth, top_n_classes, labels_limit, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show models probability of predictions for the specified output_feature_name.

For each class or each of the k most frequent classes if top_k is specified, it produces two plots computed on the fly from the probabilities of predictions for the specified output_feature_name.

The first plot is a calibration curve that shows the calibration of the predictions considering the current class to be the true one and all others to be a false one, drawing one line for each model (in the aligned lists of probabilities and model_names).

The second plot shows the distributions of the predictions considering the current class to be the true one and all others to be a false one, drawing the distribution for each model (in the aligned lists of probabilities and model_names). :param probabilities_per_model: List of model probabilities :param ground_truth: NumPy Array containing ground truth data :param top_n_classes: List containing the number of classes to plot :param labels_limit: Maximum numbers of labels. If labels in dataset are higher than this number, "rare" label :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### calibration_multiclass¶

ludwig.visualize.calibration_multiclass( probabilities_per_model, ground_truth, labels_limit, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show models probability of predictions for each class of the the specified output_feature_name.

:param probabilities_per_model: List of model probabilities :param ground_truth: NumPy Array containing ground truth data :param labels_limit: Maximum numbers of labels. If labels in dataset are higher than this number, "rare" label :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None:

### confusion_matrix¶

ludwig.visualize.confusion_matrix( test_stats_per_model, metadata, output_feature_name, top_n_classes, normalize, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show confision matrix in the models predictions for each output_feature_name.

For each model (in the aligned lists of test_statistics and model_names) it produces a heatmap of the confusion matrix in the predictions for each output_feature_name that has a confusion matrix in test_statistics. The value of top_n_classes limits the heatmap to the n most frequent classes. :param test_stats_per_model: List containing train statistics per model :param metadata: Model's input metadata :param output_feature_name: Name of the output feature that is predicted and for which is provided ground truth :param top_n_classes: List containing the number of classes to plot :param normalize: Flag to normalize rows in confusion matrix :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None: :return:

### frequency_vs_f1¶

ludwig.visualize.frequency_vs_f1( test_stats_per_model, metadata, output_feature_name, top_n_classes, model_names=None, output_directory=None, file_format='pdf' )

Show prediction statistics for the specified output_feature_name for each model.

For each model (in the aligned lists of test_statistics and model_names), produces two plots statistics of predictions for the specified output_feature_name.

The first plot is a line plot with one x axis representing the different classes and two vertical axes colored in orange and blue respectively. The orange one is the frequency of the class and an orange line is plotted to show the trend. The blue one is the F1 score for that class and a blue line is plotted to show the trend. The classes on the x axis are sorted by f1 score. The second plot has the same structure of the first one, but the axes are flipped and the classes on the x axis are sorted by frequency. :param test_stats_per_model: List containing train statistics per model :param metadata: Model's input metadata :param output_feature_name: Name of the output feature that is predicted and for which is provided ground truth :param top_n_classes: List containing the number of classes to plot :param model_names: List of the names of the models to use as labels. :param output_directory: Directory where to save plots. If not specified, plots will be displayed in a window :param file_format: File format of output plots - pdf or png :return None: :return: